This is a list of all blocks added by ComputerCraft.
The console is the main block of ComputerCraft. This is the titular computer, which is the centerpiece of this mod.
The recipe for a console.
Place the console wherever you please, and just right click it to use.  Keyboard Shortcuts Shortcut Usage CTRL + T Terminates the current program. CTRL + R Reboots the console. CTRL + S Forcefully shuts down the computer. NOTE: You have to hold the keyboard shortcuts down for at least 1 second!
The disk drive arrived with the ComputerCraft 1.2 update and with that also came Floppy Disks. The disk drive is an object that, when placed adjacently but not diagonally next to a computer, does the same as a disk drive for real computers in the real world would do: they allow the access to portable data storage devices (Floppy Disks).
The recipe for a disk drive.
To use a disk drive, place it adjacently but not diagonally next to a computer (left, right, top, bottom, front, or back side). Insert a disk by right-clicking on the disk drive and placing the disk in the slot above the inventory.
GUI of the Disk Drive  API
See Disk (API) for the disk API.
Turtles are essentially robots, and were added in the 1.3 update. They run an OS (like the Computers) named TurtleOS. They have the ability to place blocks, break blocks, move around, detect blocks, and drop items in their inventory. The programs they run are stored on floppy disks. If you would like to know more about how to program them, have a look at the Turtle API. Floppy Disks
Turtles do not have a built-in floppy drive. As such they need a floppy drive placed next to them to access disks. 
As of Computercraft 1.4, Turtles now need Fuel to move in the world. They can dig, detect and turn without using fuel but to change position you will need to add fuel. The command "refuel (amount of fuel)" can be used to fuel the turtle. Turning off the need for fuel is possible, but you have to edit the config file.
|Coal/Charcoal||96 Movements||Lava Bucket||1200 Movements|
|Blaze Rod||120 Movements|
|Coalfuel Can||1520 Movements|
|Coal Coke||160 Movements|
To craft a Turtle:
To craft a Mining turtle:
To craft a Wireless Turtle:
To craft a Wireless Mining Turtle: